“Flipside” Redesigned 

  The “Flipside” game site is currently undergoing some changes and is Under Construction. To better meet the changing needs of my students from year to year, the following changes are being made and are  slowly unfolding:

1) The Quest areas are now just know as Areas and there are five instead of four. 

2) Each Area supports one of the five Common Core ELA strands (for Middle School) and Missions within each Area will support the clusters and standards of that particular strand. 

3) An additional room, designated the Teachers’ Resource Room, has been added and can be accessed in the Elevator Lobby of the main mushroom building. 

4) Many character images will be changing as my teenage digital artist daughter helps create new, unique images. 

My new school year is about to start and I’m hoping to also redesign my instructional approach to gamifying my course and better encourage engagement from underachieving students. I’ll be sure to keep you posted!

You can access Flipside at the following web address:



The Mission areas of each quest are now loosely Password Protected, meaning that the password for the next area is currently among the possible hidden items (NOTE: hidden passwords are only accessible on the full site, not the mobile site).

Screen shot 2013-09-19 at 7.24.30 PM
“Flipside: A Middle School Language Arts Adventure”


Next Steps

florida-standardsRecently, Florida made a jump to their version of the controversial Common Core Standards for education. This significant and abrupt shift has caused school districts to spend millions of dollars purchasing new textbooks to support these new standards, new standardized assessments to measure student achievement of these standards, and a new teacher evaluation system to measure how effective teachers are teaching the new standards. Most veteran teachers see this as another example of the education pendulum swinging back the other way again. When the winds change again in five or ten years, it’ll swing back again. Personally, the winds also seem to coincide with times when I find myself changing grade levels and/or subject areas.

websiteRedesignIf you’ve seen my game sites you’ll know that I’ve put a lot of work into creating them. I don’t want them to float off into cyberspace just because they no longer fit the new curriculum and standards shifts. I know my passion for gamified curriculum is still supported in the new visions for meaningful, motivating and engaging researched-based education around the world. The question for me has become, how can I continue to develop and use a gamified instructional model with interactive website components that will support any curriculum? Here are my current thoughts:

• Redesign the interactive website so that each area focuses on general language skills and/or use Common Core exemplars rather than curriculum units
• By completing an area, students will use the new knowledge to decipher a password needed to unlock the next area
• Each area can be accessed at any time if they can decipher the password
• Areas can be completed in any order
• Areas can have multiple levels built-in to better scaffold skill acquisition as needed and create more of an individualized experience for the “player”
• A site map will provide a general guide to the skills covered in each area.
• Teachers will be able to contact me for access to additional game and skill resources (possibly for a nominal fee)

Those are just my current ideas. Check back for more information as I begin developing the new site. And wish me luck!!

Reassessing My Gamification Approach


I realize that it’s been some time since I last posted anything.  Well, in a surprising twist, last year my students threw me a curve I wasn’t expecting – they weren’t interested or motivated to compete or game any aspect of the curriculum.  Very few even liked to use technology in the classroom, no matter how I modified my approach. Not only did that put a pin in my enthusiasm and knock my passion down a few notches, it became increasingly stressful and somewhat depressing going back to using traditional teaching methods. Even without a gamified curriculum, my students scored at the top of their grade level in our district on the state’s year-end assessment.

Toward the end of the year however, a few students (that weren’t even in any of my classes) helped me to reconsider my approach to gamification in a way that was as equally surprising as the twist my students gave me at the beginning of the year…

It was the day of the annual faculty/student basketball and volleyball games.  Since it was a school-wide reward activity, only students who had not had any discipline issues during the last grading period could attend. Students who were banished from attending were known as No-Gos. I had attended all of the other school-wide reward activities and decided that I’d take the opportunity to stay back and have a few No-Gos assigned to my classroom during the two hour event.

A few boys were escorted to my room and they had work from their teachers to complete, most of which was work they hadn’t turned in yet.  After awhile, one of the boys asks me, “Mrs. Alvarez, why do you have Pokemon and Nintendo action and Ty figures around your room?” They were all amazed when I told them that I liked gaming, but they seemed to be even more shocked to find out that I had my own DSI and was on the last level of Pokemon Platinum. “You’re the coolest teacher at school!” one of them said. I told them about my gamified curriculum and how students would earn virtual tokens for completing assignments and that they could use the tokens to buy Homework Passes and Extension Passes.  “You mean a Homework Pass can be used instead of doing a Reading Log?” (a school-wide required assignment that most students found no value in completing). “An an Extension Pass could get you a extra day or two to turn in an assignment and not lose any points?” They were astonished to learn that only a handful of my students were participating in or even using the game elements at all. “I wish I had you for my teacher!”

As we continued to talk about gaming, I began to notice that they were actually working on their assignments as they talked! A science teacher even brought in another assignment for one of the boys and he actually completed the assignment in about 15 minutes – an assignment that he hadn’t been motivated to complete on time in class or at home.  Wow! Then it hit me – maybe I had been approaching the wrong audience with the gamification.  Instead of targeting the gifted and advanced kids, I should be targeting the lower achieving and less motivated students.  There are likely many low achieving students who would rather spend more time gaming than doing classwork and learning. Gamification might actually motivate them more and help them to achieve more academic success.

My administration has reassigned me to teach three sections of eighth grade language arts and two sections of sixth grade critical thinking during the upcoming 2014-2015 school year and I’m actually excited about it. I’m planning on modifying my existing Flipside website to support the new eighth grade curriculum.  I also plan on incorporating game elements into my Critical Thinking classes, but without an interactive website.

I’ll keep you posted on my progress!

New School Year, New Curriculum, New Game Ideas

Screen shot 2013-09-19 at 7.24.30 PM Wow! It’s mid-September already and I finally have time to blog again! The regular, every-day world of Middle School, plus the process of designing a new curriculum AND a new site to go with it has made it challenging to say the least, but I’m pleased to say that the new Flipside (HTML5) framework is complete and Quest 1 has begun!

Ever since taking the Coursera Gamification course last spring, I’ve been considering how to use more game-design elements to support students’ need to be able to go back and access resources from the past to help them better succeed as they move forward.  In video games, players can go back to other areas that they’ve mastered in order to gain more experience and therefore become more successful in new areas.  The same concept works in school too –> When students find new skills difficult, opportunities to go back and spend more time on supporting skills will make the “road ahead” less difficult to master. To accomplish this in Flipside I’ve added a new element I’m calling “Terminals”.

TERMINALS are areas where the student/player is presented with an area where they have three or more choices of direction. Clicking on the red shield takes them back to the very beginning of the Quest area (the beginning of the current curriculum unit).  By choosing the yellow shield, students/players are taken back to the previous Mission (Missions are parts of a Quest and coincides with each week of a curriculum unit).  Selecting to follow the green shield leads the student/player forward to the next Mission in sequence.

Screen shot 2013-09-19 at 7.39.38 PMThis is the image of Terminal 1, which is located in Quest 1.


The images I use are mostly open-source, generally gained by searching for open-source images that fit a particular need (downloadable images from deviantart.com are also used occasionally). To support copyright laws, I’m in the process of correctly citing the owner and copyright date and link the images to their online source or provide the link at the bottom of the page in a “Credits” area. The image of the character of Link on this page, for example, was cropped from a concept version of the Nintendo game character posted at deviantart.com. There’s great information about this topic at HTML Goodies. This is a very extensive process for a site my size so far, but my idea is to begin correctly posting copyright information as I go along from now on. Since the site is designed to be used with and academically motivate my Middle School students as well as tying to my curriculum, I’m hoping to avoid any copyright issues until I can get it done properly.


Screen shot 2013-09-19 at 7.40.22 PM In addition to the Terminals, there is also a Terminal Map (pictured left). Considering that this “game” could get pretty complicated depending on the number of weeks/Missions in a given Unit/Quest.  The idea for the new curriculum is to have a total of four units, one per grading term.  If each grading term is nine weeks long and there are a total of four, that would create approximately 36+ different areas, not including Quest intro areas, terminals, hidden item/areas and resource areas such as the Training Room, Item Shop, and Arcade.

I was thinking about how students/players would get from the Home screen to their current place in Flipside when they’re in say Quest 4; Mission 5. Too much clicking unless they have access to a map for each Quest and/or a Terminal Map where they could travel from Terminal to Terminal via a virtual underground transportation system.  A further idea for the Terminal transportation is to use versions of familiar video game characters (like Link) – a different character in each quest or for each Terminal (I haven’t decided which yet). Either way, the map systems would offer students/players more choices for how and where to move around the accessible areas.

New characters are also being introduced to offer specific information about an area or give important directions for using different game elements.  I decided that the character of Katt (introduced on the Home screen of Quest 1 and also currently found in the Quest 1 Map area) would be someone who could help them with basic Quest navigation. The “Blue Fairy” is their general guide and the Flipside “Welcome” hostess also provides students (or anyone visiting the site  for the first time) with general information regarding how to gain access, mute music on the pages,  and to the “trailer” for the story behind Flipside.


Other ways I’m attempting to engage and motivate my students into having fun with the curriculum (whether they’re aware of it or not) is to directly reference skills and activities we’re using in the classroom.  For example, in the first Quest/Unit, my advanced Language Arts students are reading the novel The Lost Hero, by Rick Riordan and the theme is “a hero’s journey” through mythology.  I’ve chosen images and music for Quest 1 that reflect mythology, mystery, suspense, and even use images directly related to characters referenced in The Lost Hero. Icons located in each Mission area relate directly to the type of resource it is: Slideshare, Wattpad, Quizlet, etc. The icons will also be consistent throughout the “game” to help students find their way  around easier.

Screen shot 2013-09-19 at 8.48.35 PM

So, now I’m off to continue to build Flipside and work with my colleagues to design the curriculum.  The Leaderboard needs to be updated on the Google Spreadsheet and badges awarded on Edmodo.  Look for additional modifications and reflections about incorporating gamification into the new curriculum, with a new group of Middle-Schoolers in the next post…

Migrating from Adobe Flash to HTML5

Flipside ImageThere has been a great deal of debate among techies lately concerning which format is the better choice for website developers: Adobe Flash or HTML5.  In a nutshell, Adobe Flash allows for a lot more animated transitions but requires a lot of storage space and isn’t compatible with most tablet and smart devices without a converter. HTML5 however, is very compatible with devices but lacks the animation capability of Adobe Flash. Fortunately for students and faculty at my Middle School, we’ve just installed a “guest” server and have recently become a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) School. Until this past February, the only devices students had access to in class were school MacBooks and eMacs located in computer labs or shared laptop carts.

Beginning last summer and continuing during the school year, I spent a great deal of time creating my interactive websites (flipsideinteractive.com and giftedcelestia.com) using blank Adobe Flash templates at wix.com . I initially chose the Flash format because I liked the “pop” and fun the flash animations added to the websites while also enhancing student engagement in the gamification process.  However, now that 85% of my students are bringing in their own smart devices with them to class, I was faced with the somewhat difficult decision regarding the future of my interactive sites: Do I keep the Adobe Flash sites that I’d already invested so many hours developing and synchronizing with my curriculum, or should I start creating new sites from scratch in the HTML5 format so they could be more easily accessed at school or at home on a myriad of devices?  Here are a few reasons why I decided to convert to HTML5:

1) Students can access HTML5 sites from any device, anywhere (no excuses).

2) All of the images I’d previously uploaded and used on the Flash sites are still accessible through my Wix account for use with any HTML5 template.

3) My school district is moving away from their previously mandated curriculum and into the national Common Core State Standards next year, so I’ll have to align the sites with a new curriculum and new resources next year anyway.

4) Even though I’d purchased domain names for the Flash sites, I can transfer them with very little effort to my new HTML5 sites.

5) Students can still take screen shots on their mobile devices and submit them as evidence of mastery just as they did with the Adobe Flash sites.

I decided to try my hand at the HTML5 template for my last Language Arts unit of the year (mythology/fairy tales/folktales), so you’ll notice that the new, HTML5 version of “Flipside” is currently the active site linked to flipsideinteractive.com. I’ve also taken advantage of feedback I’ve received from students, colleagues and friends and already changed a few things:

~ New look to the Arcade

~ New, non-animated icons to identify the Training Hut, Arcade, Item Shop, etc.

~ Some areas have limited access and are under construction

~ Since the Voki’s that give directions in the Item Shop, Training Hut, and Arcade require Flash I had to come up with a “work around” –  I recorded them from the Voki website using a screen recorder (Screencast-O-matic) and uploaded them to YouTube. Now I can still share them using the video player on HTML5 website template.

~ The music used by the HTML5 Wix template uses Sound Cloud and I’m still learning how to comfortably adapt that element into the site, so at the time of this post, there are no sound effects on the new site.

I’ll be updating my blog during the summer and am hoping to be able to find time to record some screen casts of my HTML5 site development. As always, if you have any specific questions or feedback, feel free to contact me or leave a comment here.

Maximizing Your Gamification Presentation to Parents & Administration

Classroom Observation

Now that the first year of implementing my “gamified” classes is coming to a close, there are a few reflections and suggestions I’d like to make for anyone considering “gamifying” their classes.

First, remember that this concept is new and many students, parents, and administrators will not understand the concept.  Don’t try to educate them all at once. Just as you likely took your time learning about this approach, give them information a little at a time – scaffold it just as you would any other lesson. I made the mistake of moving too fast and, although they were all very excited and enthusiastic, there was a lot of confusion and misunderstanding in the beginning. The elements of game design are very useful when planning to integrate gamification into your classroom. I actually invited my students’ parents to come in on a pre-determined day and observe first hand how it all worked (the time was limited to one class period, they could only observe during their child’s class, and would have to leave at the end of class). It was a wonderful success! Not only were they able to see it in action, they also observed how their child interacted and how the instruction fit into the model.

Here is the Gamification Design Framework developed by Professor Kevin Werbach which he presents as part of the (free) online Gamification Coursera MOOC  (which I recently  completed and I highly recommend):

  1. Define business objectives. Why are you gamifying? How do you hope to benefit your business/class, or achieve some other goal such as motivating people to change their behavior? As you state your objectives, emphasize the end goal or goals of your gamified design rather than detailing the means through which you’ll achieve this goal. Basically, if your gamified system does what you intend, what specific positive results will it generate for your organization?
  2. Delineate target behaviors. What do you want your players to do? And what are the metrics that will allow you to measure them? These behaviors should promote your business objectives, although the relationship may be indirect. For example, a business goal might be to increase sales, but the target behavior could be for visitors to spend more time on your website. As you describe the behaviors, be sure to explain how they will help your system achieve its objectives. The metrics should in some fashion provide feedback to the players, letting them know when they are successfully engaging in the intended behaviors.
  3. Describe your players. Who are the people who will be participating in your gamified activity? What is their relationship to you? And what are they like? You can describe your players using demographics (such as age and gender), psychographics (such as their values and personalities), Bartle’s player types, or some other framework. You should show that you understand what sorts of game elements and other structures are likely to be effective for this population. For example, you might discuss whether a more competitive or cooperative system would be better for this player community.
  4. Devise your activity loops. Explore in greater detail how you will motivate your players using engagement and progression loops. First, describe the kinds of feedback your system will offer the players to encourage further action, and explain how this feedback will work to motivate the players. (Remember: rewards are only one kind of feedback.) Second, how if at all will players progress in your system? This includes how the system will get new players engaged, and how it will remain interesting for more experienced players.
  5. Don’t forget the fun. Although more abstract than some of the other elements, ensuring that your gamified system is fun remains as important as the other aspects. In order to fully explore this aspect of the design process, consider how your game would function without any extrinsic rewards. Would you say it was fun? Identify which aspects of the game could continue to motivate players to participate even without rewards.
  6. Deploy the appropriate tools. By this point, you’ve probably identified several of the game elements and other specifics of your gamified system. If you haven’t already, you should explain in detail what your system would look like. What are some of the game elements involved and what will the experience be like for the players? What specific choices would you make in deploying your system? For example, you might discuss whether the gamified system is to be experienced primarily on personal computers, mobile devices, or some other platform. You might also describe what feedback, rewards, and other reinforcements the players could receive. Finally, think about whether you’ve tied your decisions back to the other five steps in the process, especially the business objectives.

Creating My Interactive Websites

website design

Merely “gamifying” my classes wasn’t ambitious enough for me I guess. I also wanted to try and give my students something of a video game experience in hopes that it would motivate them further. I drew upon my personal experiences playing video games with my children and interactive websites I had seen other teachers create (via connections I’d made through Edmodo) as my main sources of inspiration. It was definitely a daunting task to say the least and it kept me up late many nights, but I had fun and the resulting sites have been met with continued excitement by my students – which has continued to motivate me further.

If you’re interested in learning how to go about creating an interactive site to support your own curriculum, here are a few videos I’ve made that walk you through my thought and design processes (NOTE: These are my first attempts at creating screencasts and they were limited to fifteen minutes each, which was definitely a challenge)…

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

A “tour” of Flipside

If you have any other questions about how I made the sites, please feel free to leave me your questions in a comment. These sites are still very much works in progress and will be modified periodically as my curriculum changes to support the Common Core State Standards in the coming months.

Next: Introducing “Gamification” and the interactive websites (flipped classroom) model to parents and school administration…

Planning for Gamification

diy_gamificationIt may seem overwhelming in the beginning, but it really doesn’t have to be that tough. The key is to not bite off more than you can chew. Use what you’re already comfortable and familiar with. You can always modify it later on if you need to. Then take baby steps if you have to. I chose to use my summer break to start reinventing my classes. That way I had plenty of time to think it through as much as I could. You can never plan for everything so only plan a little at a time.

The first decision I needed to make about gamification was to determine the type of scoring method I was going to use. Like me, you may have to use your school district’s A/F grading expectations (that fit the standard, top-down, success/failure model) and still be able to incorporate a year-long XP (Experience Points) leveling-up model at the same time. I decided to take the easy way out and make each assignment count the same amount for both: the assignment would receive a percentage score for the gradebook and also receive the same amount of XP for the class “game”. That way, I would still be meeting my district’s expectations, parents and students would both continue to have the same understanding about grade performance, and the XP could be continually added up all year long. Win-win. The challenge for me was to find a way to manage both. Here’s how I modified my grade sheets:

Grade Sheet Pic

At the top of each assignment column I write how many XP the assignment is worth. Every week or so I create a column labeled “XP” where I calculate and record all the XP each student has earned since the last time I added them up. The amount of XP is entered into a Google Doc Spreadsheet I created (I’ve found that it’s much easier to share the link once, allowing future changes to show up automatically using the same link, instead of uploading or re-linking a new document every time an update is made to the spreadsheet). Once entered, the scores are sorted by the highest XP and voila, we have a Leaderboard.

In addition to XP, in order to make the Leaderboard and gamification really take off with the students, I decided that I needed to consider level and reward systems. In addition to individual rewards, I also liked the idea of building in class rewards to support each class’ community of learners. Edmodo’s badge component was already available to me and I had “stolen” many level badges from some of the teachers I’d connected with. I could see some of my students valuing the badges (some a little too much), but I knew it wouldn’t be enough motivation for everyone. Once again, I went back to Edmodo and put the question out to my students: “What types of class rewards would you want to earn if your entire class was the first to get everyone to a level before the other classes?” Their responses were very creative. After considering and evaluating their responses for options that I could realistically follow-through with without much effort and that wouldn’t require very much money (if any), I created a chart that I posted to my class “game” website (I’ll be getting into the notion of creating a game site in a future post).

I work in additional game rewards through the use of “Tokens” and extra credit “Mini Games”. To make things simple for this non-math teacher, students receive one token for each 10XP they earn (100XP = 10 tokens). Students can choose to earn extra credit (extra XP and points added to their end of term grade) by completing online educational games that support the course content and benchmark standards, taking Accelerated Reader book quizzes, etc. Generally, extra credit options are worth 25XP and 2.5 extra credit points are added to their class grade point average. After a while, I had to modify the amount of XP that students could earn when several students began focusing more on turning in gobs of extra credit instead of the standards-based assignment tasks for actual grades. Now, the first (3) are worth 25XP each, the next (3) are worth 10XP each, and any after that are only worth 1XP each. I had students trying to submit 20 or more extra credit options right before Progress Reports or Report Cards as a mad rush to bring their grade up, which I obviously had a philosophical issue with.

I also created a virtual “Item Shop” where students could spend their tokens.

Item Shop

I really like the idea of giving students more choices, which hopefully would encourage them to put forth more quality work while at the same time demonstrating that I value their commitments to their other classes, families, and extra curricular activities. Let’s face it, we all struggle juggling everything all the time! I’d used Homework Passes for many years and I thought this would easily offer them the choice component. Some students realized quickly that, in order to earn enough tokens to purchase a Homework Pass, they would have to do work well enough to earn the tokens. They weren’t getting them for free! I still have to occasionally remind them about using them if I start hearing them moan about all the work they have in other classes or about tournaments and family gatherings coming up over a weekend. I still find myself reminding them that they need to purchase a Homework Pass before an assignment is due, not the day or day after and that they cannot be used for Quizzes, Tests, or Projects. It’s become popular to use for their Weekly Reading Log when they find that they haven’t read the required hours one week or have too much work to read the required time.

Before I came up with the list of items, I created a poll on Edmodo to survey students’ favorite snacks and candy (there are several free online poll-generating sites, like Easy Polls, if you’re not familiar with or have access to Edmodo). With student input in hand, I purchased one or two large cases of individual snack bags and candy at a local wholesale market. I struggled with how to price the items in order to encourage students to make wise choices. The price for candy and snacks was originally the same price as the Homework Passes, but that changed quickly. Students were required to message me any purchases they’d like to make from the Item Shop through Edmodo. By the end of the first day that the snacks were available for purchase, the shop was totally sold out of candy! No one had purchased Homework Passes like I had hoped. What was wrong with this picture?! Duh – they’re 11 and 12 year olds! A couple of students had surprised me, and purchased lunch passes. While they were eating lunch with me, I asked them if they’d mind giving me their input and suggestions for making modifications to the Item Shop list. They suggested making the snacks more expensive than the Homework Passes and, if I wanted to give them more options for academic motivation, add Task Extension Passes and Task Re-Do options to the list. What a great marketing idea! It was brilliant! I am happy to report that the purchase of snacks has dramatically decreased and the purchase of Homework Passes (which I now limit to one a week because of abuse by a few students) has risen. Maybe students are now evaluating their purchases more wisely, which is what I was aiming for from the start.

NEXT: Creating “The Game” site to support my curriculum and the gamified class structure (changing the structure of my instruction = inStructural)


Penny Arcade Presents: Gamifying Education

This was the first video I watched about “Gamifying Education”. I was so excited that I immediately showed it to my own children (ages 11 & 12) to see what they thought about the concept.  They said they wished that ALL their teachers would do that to their classrooms! I was convinced too. And so it began…

The first thing I decided to do was to watch more videos about gamification.  Penny Arcade has some others that are good too, but I wanted to see what the cutting-edge technology gurus were saying about it.  Here are links to some other amazing discussions on the topic of gaming and education. I highly recommend them as a first step toward wrapping your head around the idea:

Seth Priebatsch: The game layer on top of the world (TED Talk)

Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a better world (TED Talk)

G.A.T. Innovative Learning Model (YouTube)

Game Based Learning Education Gamification (Edmodocon 2011 Presentation)

Playing to Learn (Prezi Presentation by Maria Anderson 2012)

There are many different websites that have excellent resources for learning about gamification, game design, and games-based learning. Here is a Wiki that constantly adds more and more resources:

Gamification Wiki

If you are really obsessed, like I am, here are some online courses (some are free) that you can participate in – I learned A TON!!

Gamification Coursera

3D Gamelab

Game-Based Learning MOOC

Also consider looking in iTunesU, Facebook, Google+, Twitter, and other media areas for gamification topics. You’ll be surprised how much is out there!

This is also an amazing (and relatively inexpensive) resource created by Mr.Daley that I continue to refer to, especially during my beginning stages of gamification:

Education Gamification Survival Kit (TeachersPayTeachers)

Next: Setting up my classroom and curriculum for “the game”…

From the desk of Mr. Walters

How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction


How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

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How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

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How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

First the Classroom, Then the World

How I've Created My "Game" Sites & Prepare My Classes For Their "inStructural" Transformation = Altering the Structure of Instruction

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